- Scythian Gold
- Mid-4th c., Gold, enamel
From Tovsta Mohyla, near Ordzhonikidze, Dnipropetrovs’ka Oblast’.
A famous Nordic myth tells about a fair and a non German god named Balder. His dwellings and belonging domains are called Breidablick, which is synonymous to Europa (the wide eyed) in Greek. The name Balder originates unquestionably from the Latin word baltas (white); the name of the Baltic peoples and the Baltic States can be derived from here and has originally been the name of their greatest divinity, Svantovit (“holy revelation”) and Byelobog (“the white god” = Balder). Byelobog is also the divinity of the heavenly and underworld paradise and therefore it was believed he was killed by evil gods (Chernobog/Perisokea/Höder and Panu/Loke). Since then he has been travelling to the underworld paradise (Bunyan). That is why Snorri Sturlason has written the following about his glorious dwellings: «fairer place is not to be found».
Hropa means “[holy]” revelation in Icelandic which suggests that this has been a Germanic name of the Baltic States (land belonging to the white and holy revelation, i.e. the god Svantovit/Byelobog). The name Hropa has entered into Greek myths in two ways: Europa (= Breidablick) and Harpya, the land belonging to the legendary Harpyror (Harpies, robbers in the shape of half women and half vultures) or Gripea (the land of the half eagle and half lion). The name of the Livonians in Russian means both eagle and lion (= avesas oropi). An ancient domestic livian name on the Finnish/Estonian tribal society of the Baltic States has been Thule (= Kurland, the land of the fire demons and the land of Panus/Lokes/Kalvaitis) since both the Greeks and the Romans imported amber from here. Herodotus describes this land as gold (amber) watching over the land of griparna (Griffins), (Gripea = Oropea in the Avesta).
Herodotus tells of a famous Scythian myth which involves the original name of Europa and simultaneously about the Scythian name of Scandinavia. According to the Scythes themselves they are the youngest people on earth. Their origin is supposed to be as follows. The first man to be born in the land, when it still was deserted, was named Targitaos (the ancestor of the world). The parents of this Targitaos should according to their story — which I do not believe to be credible but the tale is however told thus — have been Zeus (Pappai) and a daughter to the river Borystenes (the Dnieper River). Such a descent this Targitaos hence should have had. Himself, it is claimed, should have had three sons: Lipoxiais (the king of the country standing by the edge), Arpoxais (the king of the harpies= king of oropians) and the youngest one Kolaxais (king of the tribes). During their reign in Scythia there fell from the heavens a plough (a sign of the Poles), a yoke (a sign of the Dacians = the ox people), a battle-axe (a sign of the Tauri) and a bowl (a sign of the Scythes = the bowl people). The oldest among them who saw these things went forward to take possession of them but then the gold started to burn. He went away. After him the other brother appeared but the gold was once again on fire. These two were scared of the gold catching fire. The oldest brothers contemplated this event and then handed the entire royal power to the youngest brother.
From Lipoxias (the king of the country standing by the edge) shall those Scythes descend who are called the tribe of the aukaternas (the far away population = Hyperboréer, Scandinavians) from the middle brother Arpoxais (the king of the harpies, the king of oriopans according to the Avesta), those who are called Catiaroi (= Slaves, Russians) and Traspians (White Russians). From the youngest descent the kings that are called Paralate (the first lawmakers). All these together are called skoloter (the bowl people, scholaver) after the king’s name. The Hellenics call them Scythes (the bowl people). Such is the story told by the Scythes (the forefathers of the Slovenes) about their origin.
In the Old Iranian religious books, these three Scythian kings appear by the names Vigard (the one of foreign lands), Thakhm-orope (the hero of the griffins), Hoshang (the wise one) / Bom-shah (king of the countries). Takhm-oropa has like his Nordic equivalent been killed by the fire demon (the Devil = Höder/Loke). The Scythes (the forefathers of the Slovenians) and the Sarmatians (the forefathers of the Serbo-Croatians) originate from indo Iranian tribes.
The myth about Balder (Byelbog; the white god) and Chernobog (the dark god, Höder/Loke) has been a source of many famous tales about gods and heroes, among them the myth about Prometheus and Epimetheus; Achileus (Achilles) (son of sadness) and Paris (demonic fire), Ahura mazda (Aryman) and Ahriman, King Arthur and Mordred. Achilles’ heal reveals the hooves of Panus (the Devil) since the names of Balder’s slayer, i.e. Höder can be interpreted as the god with hooves, in other words Pan (Panu, the Devil). The name of this god in the variety of Kalvaitis (god of fire and forging) could have been the origin to the names Kurland and Thule (the ancient Baltic States).
Herodotus also tells that the gold of the griffins was stolen by the people of the one eyed god, Arimaspier (= gepidish Gothic people) in Northern Europe. The archaeological pictures below show Gripea (the Baltic States; the meaning of the name Lithaun is lions lair), Traspia (White Russia the land of the grooms) and Russia (=Gårdarike):